When leaving your job, make sure you do this if you really want to violate the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act!

TAKEAWAY: Do not access your former employer’s computer system without its consent after you no longer work there. New employers, do not encourage or permit your new employees to do this either.

There has been much debate over the last couple of years over whether an employee violates the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act by wrongfully accessing and obtaining information from the employer’s computer for nefarious reasons – while still being employed. This has been referred to as the “circuit split” because the circuit courts of appeal have three different approaches for determining whether this violates the CFAA, what I refer to as the Trilogy of Access Theories (see bottom of post for explanation). What is not open to debate, however, is whether a former employee violates the CFAA by wrongfully accessing its former employer’s computer system after he or she no longer works for that employer.

That is the lesson of Nouveon Technology Partners, Inc. v. McClure & Smarter Systems, LLC, 2013 WL 811102 (W.D.N.C. March 5, 2013). The basis for the Court issuing this order is not the reason I am blogging about it, rather, I am blogging about it because I think the facts of this case are something that all employers and employees need to understand and this case does a nice job of illustrating that point.

The basic facts are all too familiar. Employee decides to go work for a new company and wants to take her former employer’s confidential proprietary information and use it to work for her new employer. Where the facts differ from many of these cases is that, according to the Plaintiff’s Complaint, the employee accessed the employer’s computer system and took the information after she no longer worked for the employer. I recommend you read the Complaint because it does a nice job of laying out the investigation into the employee’s conduct and clearly distinguishes the former employee’s activities prior and subsequent to her employment ending.

The employee’s last day of employment was April 23, 2012. She was directed to return all of employer’s property in her possession and was understood she was no longer permitted to access the employer owned computer system (including the laptop that was issued to her) after her employment ended. She was to return the company issued laptop on April 23 but did not return it until later:

58.   The forensic search of the laptop computer also revealed that McClure had, without NouvEON’s knowledge or approval, retained and continue to use the NouvEON-owned laptop computer in her possession through the evening of April 23, after she had officially ended her duties for NouvEON and was no longer a NouvEON employee. Throughout the evening of April 23, McClure utilized the username and password provided to her by NouvEON solely for NouvEON business to continually remotely access NouvEON’s Salesforce.com account and various folders on the laptop containing Confidential Information such as NouvEON’s recruiting candidate pipeline, information regarding sales activities, the resumes of candidates identified and interviewed by NouvEON for placement with NouvEON clients and related recruiting information.

59.   As a result of further forensics analysis of the NouvEON-owned laptop used by McClure, NouvEON has now learned that after McClure became an employee of Smarter Systems, she continued to remotely access NouvEON’s Salesforce.com Database to access and misappropriate NouvEON’s Confidential Information by using a username and password issued to another employee through as late as June 7, 2012.

60.   In summary, the foregoing forensic inspection of the NouvEON laptop computer used by McClure revealed for the first time that prior to and for over one month after her last day of employment with NouvEON, McClure regularly accessed and misappropriated, and likely downloaded, highly sensitive and proprietary Confidential Information belonging to NouvEON. McClure’s actions in this regard were not known by or authorized by NouvEON and are in violation of her Employee Agreement and NouvEON’s policies.

So there you have it, if you are looking for a really great way to violate the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act when leaving your job, just do what McClure did! If you have any questions or would like to talk computer fraud, data security or privacy, please feel free to give me a call (469.635.1335) or email me (stuma@brittontuma.com).

How Do You Violate the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act? SunPower Lawsuit Shows How!

A new lawsuit has been filed by SunPower against 5 former employees and it’s rival SolarCity alleging violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. This is a good one to look at if you want to see how to violate the CFAA with style — especially if you are an soon-to-be-departing employee and you don’t want there to be any doubt until the 9th Circuit resolves the access issues in US v. Nosal.

You’re following me on this, right? Ok, good, let’s have a little test to see: do you know which of these two tidbits of factual information I am talking about that is so important, (a), (b), or both?

(a) “Leyden connected at least three personal USB storage devices, commonly known as flash drives, to SunPower’s internal computer network and downloaded thousands of sensitive sales files and documents in clear violation of the company’s internal guidelines, said SunPower, which said it conducted a forensic analysis of its computer systems before filing the lawsuit.”

“”The forensic evidence indicated that Leyden copied at least thousands of files containing SunPower confidential information and non-confidential proprietary information to these devices,” said the complaint. “These files included hundreds of quotes, proposals, and contracts, as well as files containing market analysis, forecast analysis and business analysis.””

“Leyden also accessed highly confidential data from SunPower’s SalesForce database, according to the lawsuit, including information on major commercial customers who accounted for more than $100 million in sales in 2011.”


(b) “Aguayo, who joined SunPower in 2005, had accessed his company e-mail account after Nov. 1, his last day of employment. It said it than discovered that Aguayo had forwarded several e-mails containing customer information, price lists and market reports to his personal e-mail address in mid-November.”

Lets hear it, what is your answer?

Now, to give credit where credit is due, I first read about this in a nicely done article by Dana Hull (@danahull) from which the above quotes were taken: SunPower sues five former employees and rival SolarCity for data theft and computer fraud. Ms. Hull was kind enough to include a copy of the Complaint in her article so give her a shout-out and tell her thank you for making it a little easier for you to get a hold of this fun reading!

3 Recent Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Cases Worth Noting

Three recent Computer Fraud and Abuse Act cases decided over the last couple of months are worth looking at because they show the following points, respectively: (1) the CFAA in its current form does not give consumers an adequate remedy for privacy related data breach issues; (2) the CFAA’s focus on “access” is more akin to trespassing on a computer system than using a computer to commit a traditional “fraud”; and (3) the way a judge “walks through” the evidence vis-a-vis the elements of a basic civil claim under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

Why the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in its current form does not give consumers an adequate remedy to address privacy related data breach issues?

This is demonstrated by La Court v. Specific Media, Inc., 2011 WL 2473399 (C.D. Cal. Apr. 28, 2011) in which the court granted the defendant’s Motion to Dismiss because the plaintiffs in a class-action case, even in the aggregate, could not demonstrate the requisite $5000 “loss” required to maintain a civil claim for violation of the CFAA where the only “loss” they sustained was the value of personal data.

The case arose from the alleged use of Adobe Flash cookies that tracked the plaintiffs’ use of the Internet without their knowledge or consent. The plaintiffs brought a claim for violating the CFAA, among other things, alleging “that they sought to maintain the secrecy and confidentiality of the information obtained by Defendant through use of the” flash cookies and that their personal information has discernible value of which they were deprived but defendants use of it for their own economic benefit. The court dismissed the CFAA claim finding that the plaintiffs personal information, in essence, had no value– or at least not enough value to collectively meet the $5000 threshold.

You will recall that I blogged about this impediment when Apple was sued in the iTracking cases. If not, take a look at these posts where I delve a little deeper into this “loss” issue:

Apple iTracking Case: will Apple be WINNING on Computer Fraud and Abuse Act claim?

Apple Should Win the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Claims …

iTracking II: Apple Sued Again for Violating Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

From what I can tell, nothing has changed.

Now, there is talk around the “data privacy” neighborhood that things could be changing a bit and courts may be starting to ascribe some value to people’s own personal data but I’ve not yet seen anything that has confirmed this is going to happen.

First, apparently two cases related to the La Court case involving Adobe Flash cookies have been settled for a $2.4 million settlement. The cases are Valdez v. Quantcast Corp. and White v. Clearspring Technologies and the article I read indicating the settlement value can be found HERE. I do not know the details of the settlement but, if any of you happen to know, I would be interested in learning more about it.

Second, just yesterday I read an article by Andrew Clearwater on the International Association of Privacy Professionals newsletter entitled New theory of harm in data breach cases that argued that people have a property right in personal information. I found this argument to be persuasive and, according to Clearwater, it is currently being tested in the case Alan Claridge v. RockYou Inc. (2011 WL 1361588 (N.D. Cal. Apr. 11, 2011) where the court has allowed the case to proceed a partially denying the defendant’s motion to dismiss. As Clearwater says, it will be interesting to see how this develops.

If it is treated like a trespass, why is the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act not called the Computer Trespass and Abuse Act?

Now that is a good question, and one that I do not know the answer to! I do suspect, however, that it was probably an easier “sell” to use the word fraud instead of trespass so I will leave it at that. In Xcedex, Inc. v. Vmware, Inc., 2011 WL 2600688 (D. Mass. June 8, 2011), however, the court stated “[t]he conduct prohibited by the CFAA is ‘analogous to that of “breaking and entering” rather than using a computer … in committing the offense.'” This is an important principle to remember about the CFAA and, I believe, helpful to understanding the various arguments circulating around about what is and “access” under the CFAA.

What kind of evidence does a judge look for when analyzing a civil claim under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act?

The cynics among us will probably look at this next case and say, “he sure was struggling to find a comment-worthy point in this case” and they just may be right. But let me tell you why I wanted to bring this case to your attention.

Not too long ago I was drafting a motion for summary judgment for a plaintiff on a CFAA claim. As we all know, a movant on summary judgment has a better chance of winning when they can present a clear and concise argument that is supported by clear and concise evidence — with brevity being of paramount importance! One of the questions I asked myself during the drafting process was “what evidence should I use that will be most persuasive to the court and give me the maximum bang for the buck?” Within a couple of weeks of that, I read the opinion in Barnstormers, Inc. v. Wing Walkers, LLC, 2011 WL 1671641 (W.D. Tex. May 3, 2011). I found nothing earth shattering about the CFAA issues presented in this default judgment but did appreciate the way the court walked through the elements and discussed the evidence supporting each element that it found persuasive enough to include in its opinion. To me, that was enough to make it worth mentioning.

New “Employment” Computer Fraud and Abuse Act case … but with a twist!

It’s always the same: Employee decides to go work for a competitor. Employee takes confidential information. Employee uses it in new job with competitor. Employer sues.

We see it all the time and, in fact, it is probably the most common scenario of cases asserting claims under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (“CFAA”), 18 U.S.C. § 1030, et seq. This case, however, handed down on April 20, 2011, has an interesting twist.

In Meats by Linz, Inc. v. Dear, 2011 WL 1515028 (N.D. Tex. Apr. 20, 2011), the court handed down a decision denying the Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss the CFAA claim on two distinct grounds: “access” and “loss”.

The Facts, Just the Facts

Steve Dear was employed by Meats by Linz, Inc. (“MBL”) as the general manager of its Dallas sales facility. He had an employment agreement that included a confidentiality / non-disclosure agreement. Dear decided to go work for one of MBL’s competitors but, before announcing he would be leaving, accessed MBL’s password-protected confidential and proprietary information to which only he, and others on a “need to know” basis, had access. In fact, he accessed it at 9:15 p.m. on a Sunday night, downloaded it, and sent an email resignation about two hours later. In the words of Gomer Pyle, “Surprise! Surprise!” … not long afterwards, he was working for a competitor and soliciting MBL’s customers by, according to MBL, using its confidential and proprietary information that he had taken.

Employer Sued

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